The prevalence of central obesity (CO) in Mexico is a challenge for healthcare, 74% of the adult population has this condition, according the National Surveys of the last 12 years. Abdominal fat in the course of pregnancy is significantly associated with gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, abortions, neonatal death and others risks. To describe the metabolic, cardiovascular (CV) and obstetric factors in Mexican women with CO using a secondary analysis of the National Survey of Health and Nutrition (ENSANUT 2006).
We included women of reproductive age (20 to 49) with previous pregnancy, CO was determined by waist circumference measurement ≥80cm, comparing women with CO or without it (WCO), insulin resistance (IR) was estimated by triglycerides and glucose (TyG) index using a cutoff point of ≥4.68 and the metabolic syndrome (MS) with the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition. Were analyzed characteristics such sociodemographic, health history, information on previous pregnancy products, anthropometry [weight, height, body mass index (BMI)] and laboratory studies [glucose, lipid profile (mg/dl), C-reactive protein (mg/l)] were included, with a total sample of 3,202 women who represent 3,919,660 nationwide.
The prevalence of CO was 84.82% (n=2,176), significant differences were found between CO vs WCO in: BMI (29.88±5.11 vs 22.86±2.97), glucose (102.23±43.48 vs 94.16±35.79), triglycerides (127.94±59.63 vs 106.19±45.63), HDL (39.37±11.32 vs 43.24±13.36), PCR (5.28±10.77 vs 2.70±5.01), IR(44.2% vs 27.1%), MS (52.9% vs 0.4%), number of pregnancies (3.72±2.06 vs 3.06±1.94), p˂0.01. Fetal mortality was 3.3% associated 14.4% of fetuses macrosomic, abortions 21.5% vs 17.1%, p=0.027; macrosomia 20% vs 9.6%, p˂0.001 CO vs WCO respectively and preeclampsia was reported 2.06% vs 1.02% without significant differences.
CO for women at childbearing age represent metabolic and CV risks with maternal-perinatal complications related with abortions and fetal macrosomia.