Background

Cancer survivors have a higher risk of type-2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease due to treatment-related effects and fatigue-related reductions in exercise.The IMPAACT Study examined the effect of 9-months of combined aerobic and resistance training (CART) on prevalence of metabolic syndrome as an indicator of cardio-metabolic risk among cancer survivors. At baseline, 52% of participants experienced metabolic syndrome, with greater prevalence among survivors that completed treatment within the past 2 years (33%) as compared to those with 2+ years of time since last treatment (18%). The most noteworthy risk factor for metabolic syndrome at baseline was waist circumference, with the average for female participants at 100cm (SD16).Post-intervention, participants experienced the resolution of at least one metabolic risk factor and, subsequently, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome decreased to 26%. However, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Caucasian and Asian participants decreased by 80% while no decrease was observed among African-American and Hispanic participants. The intervention appeared to have the greatest influence on participants that were within 2 years of their last treatment (76% decrease) as compared to other survivors (19%). For individual risk factors, decreasing trends in triglycerides and fasting blood glucose and an increasing trend in high-density lipoprotein were suggested as participation increased. These findings suggest that CART may be most beneficial to the cardio-metabolic health of cancer survivors that have most recently completed treatment. These results also highlight the need to further examine the potential health disparities in metabolic risk among African-American and Hispanic cancer survivors.