We previously conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing diabetes surgery to intensive medical weight management (MWM) to treat patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and Body Mass Index (BMI) 30-35 kg/m2. At 3 year follow-up, we found that surgery was highly effective in T2DM remission and that the soluble form of RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end-products) may be an adequate diabetes biomarker that may help determine which patient population would benefit most from surgery. The purpose of this study is to provide longer-term (5-year) follow-up of this initial patient cohort.


Retrospective chart review was performed of the initial patient cohort. Demographic data from the initial cohort included baseline weight, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as medications. Repeated measures linear models were used to model weight loss and change in HBA1c.


Originally, 57 patients with T2DM and BMI 30-35 were randomized to surgery (bypass, sleeve or band based on patient preference; n=30) vs. MWM (n=27). At baseline, mean BMI was 32.6 kg/m2 and mean HbA1c was 7.8. At 5 year follow-up, the surgery group continued to have lower HbA1c (6.58 vs. 7.99) and lower BMI (27 kg/m2 vs. 29.9 kg/m2) vs. the non-surgical group. At 3 years, in the surgical group, those with a higher baseline sRAGE had a lower post-op BMI.


Diabetes surgery in T2DM patients with BMI 30-35 kg/m2 remains effective up to 5 years. Higher baseline sRAGE may predict success with surgery.